Reuse permitted under the Copystraight paradigm.
Mission: Open Source innovation at a sustainable pace.
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The first digital computer was built by Konrad Zuse and Helmut Schreyer in 1941. It literally weighed a ton...
Replica of the Konrad Zuse Z3 Computer on display in Deutsches Museum, Germany.http://www.deutsches-museum.de/...
Computer hardware grew, ENIAC weighed 30 tons!
An engineer walking into ILLIAC II at the University of Illinois.http://www.computersciencelab.com/ComputerHistory/...
...in case you ever wondered why Stanley Kubrik designed a spacecraft computer you could walk into!
Courtesy by: THX Trailer
...you can still walk in, now it is just called "cloud".
Image of a modded data center courtesy by: cnet.com
Image courtesy of Greenpeace
John W. Tukey in 1958 was the first author to use the term "software" (still in quotes) in the context of complementing computer hardware.
Today the "software" comprising the carefully planned interpretive routines, compilers, and other aspects of automative programming are at least as important to the modern electronic calculator as its "hardware" of tubes, transistors, wires, tapes and the like.
...required computers to plug cables and punch the right switches.
"Computers" (female programmers) plugging the ENIAC electronic calculator. Yes, meaning of words changes. Courtesy http://www.computersciencelab.com/ComputerHistory/...
HAL 9000 ... on the verge of Artifical Intelligence.
Image courtesy by: THX Trailer
Software is different because it can be duplicated.
The history of Unix dates back to the mid-1960s.
At the Bell Labs Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie built on the origins of Unix and in the 70s rewrote it in C.
US antitrust regulators sued IBM for improper "tying" of software and hardware in 1969. Although the case was dropped by the US Justice Department after many years of attrition as "without merit", IBM started the age of selling software.
...but Ken Thompson kept on shipping Unix code to interested parties.
In 1983, the U.S. Department of Justice settled its second antitrust case against AT&T and broke up the Bell System. This relieved AT&T of the 1956 consent decree that had prevented them from turning Unix into a product. AT&T promptly rushed to commercialize Unix System V, a move that nearly killed Unix.
...but in the same year the GNU Project was founded by Richard Stallman.
In the 1980s Richard Stallman announced the GNU project, saying that he had become frustrated with the effects of the change in culture of the computer industry and its users.
Source: Wikpedia article.
A program is free software if the program's users have the four essential freedoms:
Source: The Free Software Definition
...the Dark Lord started to ship software with the hardware:
Proprietary licenses build on the concept of "Intellectual Property" and are exclusively designed to limit the freedom of the user and to maximize the vendor's revenue. In most cases the vendor is not the active developer of a software but an exploiter of manpower.
It became incredibly popular because it scales perfectly and almost infintely.
Beware of those who want to make you click-through!
Watch Nina Paley's animated cartoon explaining
End User License Agreements.
Video courtesy of the Electronic Frontier Foundation
...translates into: Geographic Information Systems. It comprises a whole species of software for:
GIS has diversified into client/server systems and lightweight applications, moved to the clouds, and is being implemented by crowds, ...
Please come back later. This part is still under construction...
More details and links can be found on the OSGeo Wiki - Open Source GIS History.
The need for Open Standards was the result of working with pioneering software development in the geospatial realm.
1982: The Geographical Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS) project is started with funding from the US Military.
Development is ongoing to the day!
The real issue for both groups are not implementing the algorithms but ETL'ing the plethora of proprietary data formats.
In the wake of the standards efforts, work on M.O.S.S. and GRASS come to a standstill.
Invented in the early 90s by Sir Tim Berners Lee, initially the Internet was used by researchers and freaks (nowadays we call them "Early Adopter"). By the 2000s the Internet has become a viable option for distributed computing. This is the real turning point for Free and Open Source software! There are two main reasons:
Thanks to Markus Neteler (and the Internet) GRASS is resurrected in 1998 after free-floating in stasis for a while.
The ubiquitous availability of the Internet starts a whole new era of Openness.
All great. Yeah. But...
And prorietary vendors give us a hard time.
In 2005 the MapServer community starts a dialog how a foundation might look like. There are many good discussions.
After thoroughly debating and answering these important questions the Open Source Geospatial Foundation
is born in February 2006:
It is an umbrella organization of initially eight Open Source software projects including GRASS. Now we are unstoppable.
Seven Open Source Geospatial Software Projects emerge:
By 2006 stable communities have formed around them.
Source: OSGeo's Structure
Source: OSGeo's Structure
The most recent OSGeo initiative with has been launched together with the ICA is GeoForAll.
The goal of the initiative is to promote and enhance education and research for and with Open Source software and Open Data all around the world.
Your software is great. But it is worth nothing - without Data!
Read all the details about Open Data - Taming the Beast.
Open Data Friendship, also referred to as Beast Control or Beast Trick, is the Force ability to control data. Once calmed, the data can be used by the Force user in various ways, including as a service or INSPIRE beast.
Inspired by Star Wars, adopted for Data Wars
Just across the chasm - or maybe not quite yet.
Data collected by the government shall be:
The collection, maintenance and provision is funded by the public. Therefore It is a public good.
Typically volunteer driven and often Ad-Hoc collections of data.
Nota bene: According to Wikipedia the term crowdsourcing is nowadays used in a different context.
Usage of the data is regulated by the ODbL license:
So why not download all of this great data...
...overlay and individually style them on an Open Source software stack (PostGIS, MapServer, Mapbender)...
...and print the result on fabric: SplashMaps - For the REAL outdoors!
Slide content courtesy of David Overton
Slides courtesy by David Overton
SplashMaps are REAL outdoor maps
designed for clarity and accuracy.
The SplashMaps brand focus:
Challenges of a REAL outdoor spec.
Maps for the outdoors are a design challenge - especially when it comes to a product that needs explaining.
There are challenges of getting it known! Marketeers needed!
Great following, broad distribution!
Make your own map. And make it dead simple to make:
Stanfords: Explore, Discover, INSPIRE
SplashMaps are tailored for specific events.
(...now is a good time to hand around the Isle of Wight map)
We will grow a mapping business that exploits the freedom of data to tailor maps which, to their very fibre, are designed for the REAL world.
(...and learn proper British spelling)
In orer to reach our goals we need to scale up:
To this effect SplashMaps has acquired new funding and partners with businesses in the map making and data asquisition business, and even the chemical industry to help develop flexible displays.
Feel free to contact David Overton, CEO of SplashMaps
Geospatial Openness comes in three complementing tastes:
SplashMaps is just one (somewhat exotic) example of the great things we can do these days with Open standards, software and geographic data!
A Brief History of Open Geospatial
Presented by Arnulf Christl of metaspatial
This presentation is available at: http://metaspatial.net/conferences/open-geospatial-history.html